Frequently Asked Questions

If you encounter problems in using the questionnaire, please contact Zhexiao Guo or Ping Li. We welcome suggestions and feedback to improve the LHQ3.

1. I encountered issues that LHQ3 system works abnormally.

We suggest reloading the LHQ3 by pressing the"Ctrl+F5" (Windows OS) or "Cmd+R" (Mac OS) shortcut, especially after a system update. The shortcut is used to refresh the LHQ3 cache. If the issues still exist after cache refreshing, please feel free to contact us.

2. Can participants use mobile phones to complete the LHQ3 questionnaire?

Yes, they can. The LHQ3 questionnaire has a specific design for mobile devices, such as mobile phones and tablets. If the questionnaire is created in general mode (neither Prolific nor Customized mode), participants can visit it by scanning a QR code instead of a text link.
Please note that only the questionnaire is compatible with mobile devices. The other functions, such as creating and managing questionnaires, and checking questionnaire results, shall be conducted on PC.

3. Can I adjust the number of participants after creating the questionnaire?

Yes, on the Questionnaire Management page, you can adjust the number of participants twice.

4. I want to know which questions correspond to the calculation of the aggregate scores?

The proficiency score is calculated based on Question 15.
The immersion score is calculated based on Question 7.
The dominance score is calculated based on Question 15, Question 18, and Question 19.
For the calculation details, please visit the corresponding Docs page.

5. I am a user from the Chinese Mainland. I can't visit LHQ3 without a VPN. Any solutions?

We have made LHQ3 accessible for the Chinese Mainland users in the 3.2 update. However, the block list of China GFW is constantly updated. If you encounter any access problem, please report it to us. We will address such a problem as soon as possible.

6. I am using Gorilla to conduct my experiment. Can I integrate LHQ3 into Gorilla?

Yes, LHQ3 provides a mode named "Customized" for integrating it into Gorilla. For the integration details, please visit Docs for more information.

7. In Question 18, is the time spent on Using Social Media and Internet considered as time spent on Writing?

Yes, using Social Media and Internet is considered as time spent on Writing.
Furthermore, for RLSW aspects:
Hours on Listening is the sum of "Watching TV" and "Listening to radio".
Hours on Reading is the sum of "Reading for fun" and "Reading for school".
Hours on Writing is the last two columns of Question 18.
Hours on Speaking is the sum of items on Question 19.

8. For the dominance formula, the constant K is 16. However, if a participant responded with spending more than 16 hrs a day engaging in a certain activity, it gives an inaccurate percentage of time.

Yes, we are well aware that the sum of hours could be more than 16 hours (24 hours - 8 hours of sleeping). There are two potential reasons, 1) people may overestimate their usage, and 2) obviously there could be a lot of overlaps/double counts (i.e. listening and speaking often happen together). Keep this in mind in our design of the scores, in our formula, we did not normalize the measurements, instead, we standardized them by dividing each hour count by 16. As a result, the dominance score might be larger than 1, but for us, the really important measure is the Ratio of dominance. People may overestimate or underestimate their hours, but we assume that their estimate bias is applied similarly to the languages they use and, therefore won't affect the dominance ratio too much. We indicated this point in our description of dominance score and ratio.